Bixler, Julius Seelye. Religion in the Philosophy of William James. Boston: Marshall Jones, Bjork, Daniel W. William James: The center of His Vision. New York: Columbia University Press, Blau, Joseph. Men and Movements in American Philosophy. New York: Prentice-Hall, Contents: Prelude. Blum, Deborah. New York: Penguin Press, Blumer, Herbert. George Herbert Mead and Human Conduct , ed. Thomas J. Walnut Creek, Cal. Boggs, Grace Lee.
Boisvert, Raymond D. Dewey's Metaphysics. New York: Fordham University Press, Contents: Introduction -- Change and permanence in Dewey's idealistic period -- Darwin, change, and the transition to experimentalism -- Change and permanence in the experimental logic -- Dewey's objections to traditional doctrines -- Metaphysics and evolutionary philosophy -- Dewey's reconstruction of traditional metaphysics -- Logical forms -- Conclusion. John Dewey: Rethinking Our Time. Contents: Introduction: The "naissance" and "renaissance" of American philosophy -- Dewey's reconstruction of the tradition -- 1.
The life-world -- Lived experience -- The fallacy of intellectualism -- The primacy of interaction -- Temporality and possibility -- Responsibility -- Evaluating philosophy -- 2.
Charles Sanders Peirce - Wikipedia
Thinking -- Against epistemology -- Copernican revolutions -- Spectators or inquirers? Democracy -- Winthrop, Locke, and Dewey -- Conjoint, communicated experience -- Freedom as growth -- Equality as individuality -- 4. The public -- Mass or public? Educating -- A simple credo -- Beyond modern man -- Occupations -- Education is an end in itself -- Education and democracy -- Moral education -- 6. Making -- Art versus arts -- Experience -- Imagination, communication, and expression -- Distraction versus participation -- 7.
Devotion -- Religious versus religion -- The :load" carried by traditional religions -- Faith -- God -- Cooperation -- 8. Conclusion -- Postmodern or polytemporal? Boler, John. Seattle: University of Washington Press, Bordogna, Francesca. William James at the boundaries: philosophy, science, and the geography of knowledge. Boydston, Jo Ann, ed. Guide to the Works of John Dewey. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, Schneider, pt. Axtelle and Joe R. Brent, Joseph. Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Revised edn.
Brown, Hunter. William James on Radical Empiricism and Religion. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Brown, Victoria Bissell. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Browne, Neil W. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, Brunning, Jacqueline, and Paul Forster, eds. Buchler, Justus. Charles Peirce's Empiricism. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co. Buczynska-Garewicz, Hanna. Wartosc i fact: Rozwazania o pragmatizmie. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Bullert, Gary.
The Politics of John Dewey. Buffalo, N. Burke, Thomas. Chicago: University of Chicago, From publisher: This book analyzes the debate between Russell and Dewey that followed the publication of Dewey's Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, and argues that, despite Russell's early resistance, Dewey's logic is surprisingly relevant to recent developments in philosophy and cognitive science. Since Dewey's logic focuses on natural language in everyday experience, it poses a challenge to Russell's formal syntactic conception of logic. Tom Burke demonstrates that Russell misunderstood crucial aspects of Dewey's theory - his ideas on propositions, judgments, inquiry, situations, and warranted assertibility - and contends that logic today has progressed beyond Russell and is approaching Dewey's broader perspective.
Burke relates Dewey's logic to issues in epistemology, philosophy of language and psychology, computer science, and formal semantics. Buswell, James Oliver, Jr. The Philosophies of F. Tennant and John Dewey. New York: Philosophical Library, Cahn, Steven M. New Studies in the Philosophy of John Dewey. Hanover, N. Campbell, James, ed. Selected Writings of James Hayden Tufts. Campbell, James. Chicago: Open Court, Carden, Stephen D.
Virtue Ethics: Dewey and Macintyre. Contents: Introduction -- Rediscovery of the virtues -- Reconstruction of ethics -- Origins of the virtues -- Human flourishing -- The ethical life -- Conclusion. Carreira da Silva, Filipe. Mead: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Polity, Mead and modernity: science, selfhood, and democratic politics. Lanham, Md. Contents: Introduction -- Mead and the modern problematic of selfhood -- Imagining the intellectual edifice -- The making of a classic -- Science as a problem-solving activity -- From the logic of the sciences to the theory of the act -- A scientific social psychology -- A science of politics and morals -- Mead on the social origins of self -- Educating the self -- Mead on social psychology: a story rewritten -- Mead, Habermas, and social individuation -- The theory and practice of social reconstruction -- Mead and the war -- Communicative ethics and deliberative democracy -- Conclusions: Provisional answers to inescapable questions.
Carrette, James, ed. London: Routledge, James and the history of psychology. James, psychology and religion. James and mysticism. William Barnard -- pt. James and philosophy. Caruana, Francesca. Paris: L'Harmattan, Carus, Paul. Casil, Amy Sterling. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Caspary, William R. Dewey on Democracy. Ithaca, N. Caws, Peter, ed. Two Centuries of Philosophy in America.
Pragmatism And Management Inquiry: Insights from the Thought of Charles S. Peirce
London: Blackwell; Totowa, N. Chambliss, J. Lewiston, N. Cheng, Chung-Ying. Peirce's and Lewis's Theories of Induction. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, Clendenning, John. The Life and Thought of Josiah Royce. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, Colapietro, Vincent. Contents: Is Peirce's theory of signs truly general? Conkin, Paul K. New York: Dodd, Mead, Cook, Gary A. Coons, John Warren. Rochester, N. Cooper, Wesley. The Unity of William James's Thought. Nashville, Tenn.
Corrington, Robert S. An Introduction to C. Peirce: Philosopher, Semiotician, and Ecstatic Naturalist. Corti, Walter Robert, ed. The Philosophy of George Herbert Mead. The Philosophy of William James. Hamburg: Meiner, Coss, John J. Essays in Honor of John Dewey. New York: Henry Holt, Contents: Personality: how to develop it in the family, the school, and society, by Felix Adler. A note on the interpretation of philosophy, by J.
A prolegomenon to the study of mediaeval science, by Richard McKeon. Randall, Jr. Cotkin, George. William James: Public Philosopher. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Reprinted, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Cotter, Matthew J. Sidney Hook Reconsidered. Amherst, N. Coughlan, Neil. Young John Dewey. Croce, Paul J. Science and Religion in the Era of William James , vol. Cronk, George. New York: Peter Lang, Crosser, Paul K. The Nihilism of John Dewey. Cruz, Feodor F. John Dewey's Theory of Community. Dalton, Thomas C. From catalog: Tapping archival sources and Dewey's extensive correspondence, Dalton reveals that Dewey had close personal and intellectual ties to scientists and scholars that were influential in forming the mature expression of his thought.
Dalton traces the not-always-smooth pathways that led Dewey to shed his Calvinist upbringing to transform Hegelian phenomenology into a science of mind, to challenge Freudian psychology, and to articulate the central concerns of naturalism and pragmatism. Dewey's relationships with F. Frank, among others, show how Dewey drew upon these collaborations to disperse pragmatism throughout American thought and culture. Davis, William H. Peirce's Epistemology. Deegan, Mary Jo. Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School.
New Brunswick, N. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, Deledalle, Gerard. Peirce, An Intellectual Biography. Translation of Charles S. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, Peirce's Philosophy of Signs. Dennis, Lawrence J. De Waal, Cornelis. On Peirce. Belmont, Cal. On Mead. Dewey, John, et al. Creative Intelligence: Essays in the Pragmatic Attitude. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Reprinted, New York: Octagon Books, Moore, "Reformation in Logic.
Brown "Intelligence and Mathematics. Mead, "Scientific Method and Individual Thinker. Bode, "Consciousness and Psychology. Dicker, Georges. Dewey's Theory of Knowing. Philadelphia: Philosophical Monographs, Dooley, Patrick K. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, Dumais, Fabien. L'appropriation d'un objet culturel: une reactualisation des theories de C. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec, Durst, Anne. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Dykhuizen, George. The Life and Mind of John Dewey. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press By studying original source materials in Burlington and Charlotte, Vermont; Oil City, Pennsylvania; the University of Vermont; the Johns Hopkins University; the University of Michigan; the University of Minnesota; the University of Chicago; Columbia University; by combing newspapers, correspondence collections, institutional records, and particularly by establishing personal contact and communication with family members and colleagues, Dykhuizen has been able to develop a comprehensive, minutely accurate, definitive portrait of John Dewey.
Without point of view or thesis, the book systematically examines the life and mind of the man often called the philosopher of American democracy. Eames, S. Edited by Elizabeth R. Eames and Richard W. Contents: Introduction. Edel, Abraham. Somerset, N. From publisher: Dewey and James H.
Tufts' Ethics was first published in with a revised edition appearing in Dewey's part in the latter was wholly rewritten, and in effect constituted a new work, showing that Dewey did not believe ethical beliefs were eternal and unchanging. In Ethical Theory and Social Change, Edel provides a comparative analysis of the two editions to show how Dewey conceived ethics as part of an ongoing culture, not intelligible if isolated. Edie, James. William James and Phenomenology.
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Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, Contents: Foreword. Chronology and Selected Bibliography. Reconstruction in Philosophy. Philosophy as Education. Human Nature and Conduct. Intelligence and Inquiry. The Human Uses Of Freedom. The Religion of Shared Experience. Democracy as a Moral Ideal. Edwards, Anna and Katherine Mayhew. New York: Appleton, Reprinted, New York: Atherton, Reprinted, New Brunswick, N. Efron, Arthur. Amsterdam: Rodopi, The characters of Tess are considered as real people with sexual bodies and complex minds. Efron identifies the "experience blockers" that the critical tradition has stumbled upon, and defends Hardy's involvement in telling his story.
Efron offers a new way of evaluating literature inspired by Dewey's pragmatist aesthetics. Egan, Susan Chan. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, Eisele, Carolyn. Peirce: Essays. The Hague: Mouton, Eisendrath, Craig R. Cambridge, Mass. Ejsing, Anette. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, From publisher: It explores Peirce's strong but ambiguous links to the tradition of 19th century classical German philosophy and the unique way he resurrected this tradition's theoretical content in the American context. Then introducing Wolfhart Pannenberg's philosophical theology of anticipation in a discussion of Peirce's epistemological application of the theory of abduction, Ejsing reads these two in light of each other, with the goal of proposing a Peircean theology of anticipation.
Considering Peirce's religious writings of systematic importance for his philosophy, Theology of Anticipation offers critical comments to two existing interpretations of Peirce's philosophy of religion: Raposa's theosemiotic and Corrington's Peircean theology of divine potentialities. Eldridge, Michael. Nashville, Tenn: Vanderbilt University Press, From publisher: Eldridge defines what is central to Dewey's philosophy as "cultural instrumentalism, " a version of pragmatism that understands thinking to be a tool for dealing with life's problems.
For Dewey, philosophy's primary role is to develop this tool to better society and its members. In particular, Eldridge shows how this central aim of Dewey's philosophy applies specifically to the political and religious aspect of human experience. Engler, Ulrich. Wurzburg: Konigshausen und Neuman, Esposito, Joseph L. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, Evans, David H. Fairfield, Paul. Education after Dewey. From publisher: This study re-examines John Dewey's philosophy of education, and asks how well it stands up today in view of developments in Continental European philosophy.
Fairfield, Paul, ed. John Dewey and Continental philosophy. Fann, K. Peirce's Theory of Abduction. Feibleman, James. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Charles S. Feffer, Andrew. The Chicago Pragmatists and American Progressivism. God in Christ. Early Years. The Psychological Standpoint. From Socialized Church to Spiritualized Society. Labor Is the House Love Lives in. The Educational Situation. The Reflex-Arc. The Working Hypothesis and Social Reform. Between Head and Hand. Splitting Up the Schools. Between Management and Labor. A Cloud of Witnesses. The Twilight of Cooperation. Feldman, Jessica R.
From publisher: Feldman sheds a pragmatist light on the relation between the Victorian age and Modernism by dislodging truistic notions of Modernism as an art of crisis, rupture, elitism and loss. She examines aesthetic sites of Victorian Modernism - including workrooms, parlours, friendships, and family relations as well as printed texts and paintings - as they develop through interminglings and continuities as well as gaps and breaks.
Examining the works of John Ruskin art critic and social thinker , Dante Gabriel Rossetti poet and painter , Augusta Evans best-selling domestic novelist, and William James philosopher and psychologist , Feldman relates them to selected twentieth-century creations. She reveals these sentimental, domestic and sublime works to be pragmatist explorations of aesthetic realms. Feldman, William Taft. Reprinted, New York: Greenwood, Ferguson, Kennan. William James: Politics in the Pluriverse.
Fesmire, Steven. Contents: Habit and character -- The pragmatic turn -- Pragmatism's reconstruction of reason -- Imagination in pragmatist ethics -- Dramatic rehearsal -- The Deweyan ideal -- The moral artist. Fisch, Max. Peirce, Semiotic, and Pragmatism. Contents: Charles Sanders Peirce -- Justice Holmes, the prediction theory of law, and pragmatism -- Evolution in American philosophy -- Peirce at the Johns Hopkins University -- Alexander Bain and the genealogy of pragmatism -- Some general characteristics of American philosophy -- Chronicle of pragmaticism, -- Philosophical clubs in Cambridge and Boston -- Peirce's triadic logic -- Peirce's progress from nominalism toward realism -- Vico and pragmatism -- Peirce's Arisbe: the Greek influence in his later philosophy -- Peirce and Leibniz -- Hegel and Peirce -- American pragmatismbefore and after -- Peirce's place in American thought -- Peirce's general theory of signs -- Just how general is Peirce's general theory of signs?
Jane Addams and the practice of democracy. Fisher, Paul. House of wits: an intimate portrait of the James family. Fishman, Stephen M. John Dewey and the Challenge of Classroom Practice. John Dewey and the Philosophy and Practice of Hope. Contents: Prologue -- Constructing a Deweyan theory of hope -- Dewey in dialogue with Gabriel Marcel: hope with and without God -- Dewey in dialogue with Paulo Freire: hope, education, and democracy -- Dewey in dialogue with positive psychology and C.
Snyder: the mortality and politics of hope -- Conclusion to part 1: highlights of a Deweyan theory of hope -- -- Teaching a course on hope -- Undergraduates in a course on hope -- Conclusion to part 2: highlights of the classroom study -- Final reflections -- Appendix A: Classroom research methods -- Appendix B: Creating a syllabus for a course on hope -- Appendix C: Syllabus, essay guidelines, and homework assignments.
Fitzgerald, John Joseph. Peirce Peirce's theory of signs as foundations for pragmatism. The Hague, Mouton, La Philosophie de William James. Saint-Blaise: Foyer Solidariste, Translated by Edwin B. Holt and William James, Jr. Fontinell, Eugene. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, From publisher: Drawing upon the works of William James and the principles of American Pragmatism, Eugene Fontinell extrapolates carefully from "data given in experience" to a model of the cosmic process open to the idea that individual identity may survive bodily dissolution.
Presupposing that the possibility of personal immortality has been established in the first part, the second part of the essay is concerned with desirability. Here, Fontinell shows that, far from diverting attention and energies from the crucial tasks confronting us here and now, such belief can be energizing and life enhancing.
Fott, David. John Dewey: America's Philosopher of Democracy. From publisher: Examining Dewey's evolving conception of liberalism, Fott illuminates his subject's belief in democracy more fully than it has ever been explained before. By comparing and contrasting Dewey's thought with that of Socrates, Fott convincingly casts doubt on claims that Dewey offers a defensible middle ground between moral absolutism and moral relativism.
Franzese, Sergio, and Felicitas Kraemer, ed. Frankfurt: Ontos, Atmanspacher, W. Omar -- Is religious experience the experience of something? Nubiola, I. Freadman, Anne. From publisher: This radical reevaluation of one of the foundational figures of semiotics presents Peirce as the theorist of the "machinery of talk" rather than of the mind and its contents. The book is a genealogy of Peirce's writings on signs that seeks to account for the changes displayed across forty years of his work. Freadman introduces the postulate of "genre" in order to argue that the transformation of materials from one genre in and by the objectives of another can account for the modifications in sign theory observable through the course of Peirce's career.
The Machinery of Talk engages on a theoretical level with general issues in semiotics, taking Peirce's writings as a case study through which to investigate the adequacy of a theory of signs to account for the way "talk" works. It finds that "the sign" is inadequate without the accompanying postulate of "genre. Freeman, Eugene. The Categories of Charles Peirce. Chicago and London: Open Court, Freeman, Eugene, ed.
The Relevance of Charles Peirce. La Salle, Ill. Gale, Richard. The Divided Self of William James. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, From publisher: This book focuses on the multiple directions in which James's philosophy moves and the inevitable contradictions that arise as a result. The first part of the book explores a range of James's doctrines in which he refuses to privilege any particular perspective: ethics, belief, free will, truth and meaning.
The second part of the book turns to those doctrines where James privileges the perspective of mystical experience. Gale then shows how the relativistic tendencies can be reconciled with James's account of mystical experience. Gale, Richard M. John Dewey's quest for unity: the journey of a promethean mystic. From publisher: Gale argues that what makes Dewey's philosophy unique and exciting is his attempt to synthesise what Gale calls "Prometheanism" with Dewey's unique brand of mysticism. As Gale points out, Dewey celebrated human beings as Promethean creators of meaning and value through the active control of nature.
But at the same time, Dewey created a synthesis whereby a sort of mystical unifying experience results from the subject's active engagement with the environment through inquiry. Paradoxically, the active subject becomes passive in this synthesis to achieve unification with a shared spiritual reality, which Dewey expressed as a "common faith". Gale goes on to show that for Dewey artistic creation is the paradigm of this synthesis.
Gallie, W. Peirce and Pragmatism. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, Reprinted, New York: Dover, Garrison, Jim. From publisher: This provocative examination of what motivates us to teach and to learn begins with the idea of eros i. The author weaves these threads into a critical analysis of John Dewey's writings.
Garrison, Jim, ed. Gavin, William J. William James and the Reinstatement of the Vague. From publisher: Gavin argues that James's plea for the "reinstatement of the vague" to its proper place in our experience should be regarded as a seminal metaphor for his thought in general. The concept of vagueness applies to areas of human experience not captured by facts that can be scientifically determined nor by ideas that can be formulated in words. In areas as seemingly diverse as psychology, religion, language, and metaphysics, James continually highlights the importance of the ambiguous, the contextual, the pluralistic, or the uncertain over the foundational.
Indeed, observes the author, only in a vague unfinished world can the human self, fragile as it is, have the possibility of making a difference or exercising the will to believe. Gavin, William, ed. Albany, N. Contents: Introduction: Passing Dewey By? Geiger, George R. John Dewey in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, Gibson, Roger F. The Cambridge Companion to Quine.
Gibson Jr. Gonon, Philipp. Berlin: Peter Lang, Good, James A. Gouinlock, James. John Dewey's Philosophy of Value. New York: Humanities Press, Grange, Joseph. John Dewey, Confucius, and Global Philosophy. From publisher: Provides a synthesis of two major figures of world philosophy, John Dewey and Confucius, and points the way to a global philosophy based on American and Confucian values. Grange concentrates on the major themes of experience, felt intelligence, and culture to make the connections between these two giants of Western and Eastern thought.
He explains why the Chinese call Dewey 'a second Confucius,' and deepens our understanding of Confucius's concepts of the way dao of human excellence ren. The important dimensions of American and Chinese cultural philosophy are welded into an argument that calls for the liberation of what is finest in both traditions. Granger, David A. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Grossman, Joan Delaney, and Ruth Rischin, eds.
William James in Russian Culture. Poole -- 8. Gunter, Pete Addison Y. Creativity in George Herbert Mead. Hamington, Maurice. Contents: Introduction: Care--an evolving definition -- The landscape of current care discourse -- Merleau-Ponty and embodied epistemology: caring habits and caring knowledge -- Caring imagination: bridging personal and social morality -- Jane Addams and the social habits of care -- What difference does embodied care make? The social philosophy of Jane Addams. Contents: Introduction: a remarkable life, a remarkable mind -- Intellectual influences -- Radical pragmatism -- Feminist pioneer -- Sympathetic knowledge -- Ultimate social progress: peace -- Widening the circle -- The reluctant socialist -- Democracy, education, and play -- Civic religion and utopia -- Afterword: cosmopolitan hope.
Hardwick, Charles S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby. Harris, Leonard, ed. Harris, Leonard, and Charles Molesworth. Alain L.
Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher. From publisher: The long-awaited first biography of this extraordinarily gifted philosopher and writer, Alain L. Locke narrates the untold story of his profound impact on twentieth-century America's cultural and intellectual life. The multifaceted portrait that emerges from this engaging account effectively reclaims Locke's rightful place in the pantheon of America's most important minds.
Harvard Graduate School of Education. Contents: Henry R. Linville, "Inaugurating the Plan. Kilpatrick, "Introduction. Newlon, "John Dewey's Influence in the Schools. Schneider, "The Prospect for Empirical Philosophy. Angell, "The Toastmaster's Words. Hausman, Carl R. Peirce's Evolutionary Philosophy. From publisher: This book is a systematic introduction to the philosophy of Charles S. It focuses on four of Peirce's fundamental conceptions: pragmatism and Peirce's development of it into what he called "pragmaticism"; his theory of signs; his phenomenology; and his theory that continuity is of prime importance for philosophy.
The author argues that at the center of Peirce's philosophical project is a unique form of metaphysical realism, whereby both continuity and evolutionary change are necessary for our understanding of experience. In his final chapter Professor Hausman applies this version of realism to current controversies between anti-realists and anti-idealists.
Peirce's views are compared with those of such present-day figures as Davidson, Putnam, and Rorty. Heft, Harry. Mahwah, N. Helm, Bertrand P. Time and Reality in American Philosophy. Hickman, Larry A. John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology. Hickman, Larry, ed. Reading Dewey: Interpretations for a Postmodern Generation. Pragmatism as Post-postmodernism: Lessons from John Dewey. John Dewey between pragmatism and constructivism. Hickman et al. John Dewey's educational philosophy in international perspective: a new democracy for the twenty-first century. Hildebrand, David. From publisher: Current debates between realists and antirealists as well as objectivists and relativists are similar to early 20th century debates between realists and idealists that Pragmatism addressed extensively.
Despite their debts to Dewey, the Neopragmatists are reenacting realist and idealist stands in their debate over realism, thus giving life to something shown fruitless by earlier Pragmatists. What is absent from the Neopragmatist's position is precisely what makes Pragmatism enduring: namely, its metaphysical conception of experience and a practical starting point for philosophical inquiry that such experience dictates. Pragmatism cannot take the "linguistic turn" insofar as that turn mandates a theoretical starting point.
While Pragmatism's view of truth is perspectival, it is nevertheless not a relativism. Pace Rorty, Pragmatism need not be hostile to metaphysics; indeed, it demonstrates how pragmatic instrumentalism and metaphysics are complementary. Dewey: a beginner's guide. Oxford, Oneworld, From publisher: John Dewey was an icon of philosophy and psychology during the first half of the 20th century.
Known as the father of Functional Psychology and a pivotal figure of the Pragmatist movement, he also played a strong hand in the progressive movement in education. This concise and critical look at Dewey's work examines his discourse of right and wrong, as well as political notions such as freedom, rights, liberty, equality, and naturalism. Hook, Sidney. The Metaphysics of Pragmatism. Hook, Sidney, and Horace M. American Philosophy Today and Tomorrow.
New York: Lee L. Furman, John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait. New York: John Day Co. Hook, Sidney, ed. John Dewey: Philosopher of Science and Freedom. New York: Dial Press, Contents: John Dewey and the spirit of pragmatism, by H. Cork,--Dewey in Mexico, by J. Hookway, Christopher. Truth, Rationality, and Pragmatism: Themes from Peirce.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, Belief, Confidence, and the Method of Science. Truth and the Convergence of Opinion. Truth and Correspondence. Truth and Reference: Peirce versus Royce. Vagueness, Logic, and Interpretation. Metaphysics, Science, and Self-Control. Common Sense, Pragmatism, and Rationality.
Sentiment and Self-Control. Doubt: Affective States and the Regulation of Inquiry. On Reading God's Great Poem. Avoiding Circularity and Proving Pragmatism. Houser, Nathan, Don D. Roberts, and James Van Evra, eds. Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce.
Dipert -- 5. Levy -- 7. Hawkins, Jr. Merrill -- Hoy, Terry. Westport, Conn. From publisher: Dewey focused on the distortions in American political thought resulting from the Lockean-Utilitarian tradition of classical liberalism; the growing standardization and quantification of American life; the erosion of traditional face-to-face communal public life; the manipulation of public opinion by mass media propaganda; and the ascendancy of capitalist economic priorities. Dewey was convinced that a corrective to such distortions would require a "renascent liberalism" requiring a radical change in the structure of American capitalism in order to achieve a reconciliation of freedom and equality.
As Professor Hoy points out, while Dewey can be faulted for an overoptimism regarding political possibilities within the American political tradition, the distinctive merit of his contribution is his pragmatic approach to social reform that encompasses an imaginative vision, rooted in the actual potentialities of human nature, that can be a stimulus to the possibility of creative innovation.
Hylton, Peter. London and New York: Routledge, Contents: Overview: Quine's naturalism -- Quine's philosophical background: beginnings; logic; Carnap -- The analytic-synthetic distinction -- Reconceiving epistemology -- The beginnings of cognitive language: shared responses to stimulation and observation sentences -- Beyond the observation sentences -- Theory and evidence -- Radical translation and its indeterminacy -- Quinean metaphysics: limning the structure of reality -- A framework for theory: the role of logic -- Extensionality, reference, and singular terms -- Ontology, physicalism, realism -- Minds, beliefs, and modality.
Jackson, Philip W. John Dewey and the Lessons of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, Contents: Experience and the arts -- The spirituality of art-centered experiences -- Experience as artifice: putting Dewey's theory to work -- Some educational implications of Dewey's theory of experience.
Jackson, Phillip W. John Dewey and the Philosopher's Task. From publisher: By analyzing Dewey's attempts to revise the introduction to one of his most important books, Experience and Nature, Jackson explores Dewey's efforts both intellectually and emotionally to explain the all-important relationship between philosophy and human affairs.
This story of Dewey's life-long struggle with a complex philosophical question one that continues to challenge philosophers today is also the story of Jackson's own struggle to understand Dewey's quest. Jaffe, Raymond. The Pragmatic Conception of Justice. Berkeley: University of California Press, James, Eric. Jenlink, Patrick M.
Dewey's Democracy and education revisited: contemporary discourses for democratic education and leadership. Joas, Hans. Mead: A Contemporary Re-examination of his Thought. Johnston, James Scott. Deweyan inquiry: from education theory to practice. Contents: The case for inquiry -- The case for Deweyan inquiry -- An account of general inquiry -- Inquiry in science education -- Inquiry in social science education -- Inquiry in art and art education -- Inquiry, embodiment, and kinesthetics in education -- Conclusion.
Joslin, Katherine. Hardwick with James Cook, out of print. The limited coverage, and defective editing and organization, of the Collected Papers led Max Fisch and others in the s to found the Peirce Edition Project PEP , whose mission is to prepare a more complete critical chronological edition. Only seven volumes have appeared to date, but they cover the period from to , when Peirce carried out much of his best-known work. Writings of Charles S.
Peirce , 8 was published in November ; and work continues on Writings of Charles S. Peirce , 7, 9, and In print and online. Auspitz has said,  "The extent of Peirce's immersion in the science of his day is evident in his reviews in the Nation [ Edited by Patricia Ann Turisi, in print. Edited by Matthew E. Moore, in print. Peirce's most important work in pure mathematics was in logical and foundational areas.
He also worked on linear algebra , matrices , various geometries, topology and Listing numbers , Bell numbers , graphs , the four-color problem , and the nature of continuity. He worked on applied mathematics in economics, engineering, and map projections such as the Peirce quincuncial projection , and was especially active in probability and statistics. Peirce made a number of striking discoveries in formal logic and foundational mathematics, nearly all of which came to be appreciated only long after he died:.
In  he suggested a cardinal arithmetic for infinite numbers, years before any work by Georg Cantor who completed his dissertation in and without access to Bernard Bolzano 's posthumous Paradoxien des Unendlichen. In —  he showed how Boolean algebra could be done via a repeated sufficient single binary operation logical NOR , anticipating Henry M. See also De Morgan's Laws.
In  he set out the axiomatization of natural number arithmetic , a few years before Richard Dedekind and Giuseppe Peano. In the same paper Peirce gave, years before Dedekind, the first purely cardinal definition of a finite set in the sense now known as " Dedekind-finite ", and implied by the same stroke an important formal definition of an infinite set Dedekind-infinite , as a set that can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with one of its proper subsets.
In  he distinguished between first-order and second-order quantification. In , he saw that Boolean calculations could be carried out via electrical switches,  anticipating Claude Shannon by more than 50 years. By the later s  he was devising existential graphs , a diagrammatic notation for the predicate calculus. Based on them are John F. Sowa 's conceptual graphs and Sun-Joo Shin's diagrammatic reasoning. Peirce wrote drafts for an introductory textbook, with the working title The New Elements of Mathematics , that presented mathematics from an original standpoint.
Those drafts and many other of his previously unpublished mathematical manuscripts finally appeared  in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce , edited by mathematician Carolyn Eisele. Peirce agreed with Auguste Comte in regarding mathematics as more basic than philosophy and the special sciences of nature and mind. Peirce classified mathematics into three subareas: 1 mathematics of logic, 2 discrete series, and 3 pseudo-continua as he called them, including the real numbers and continua.
Influenced by his father Benjamin , Peirce argued that mathematics studies purely hypothetical objects and is not just the science of quantity but is more broadly the science which draws necessary conclusions; that mathematics aids logic, not vice versa; and that logic itself is part of philosophy and is the science about drawing conclusions necessary and otherwise.
Beginning with his first paper on the "Logic of Relatives" , Peirce extended the theory of relations that Augustus De Morgan had just recently awakened from its Cinderella slumbers. Much of the mathematics of relations now taken for granted was "borrowed" from Peirce, not always with all due credit; on that and on how the young Bertrand Russell , especially his Principles of Mathematics and Principia Mathematica , did not do Peirce justice, see Anellis Lewis wrote, "The contributions of C.
Peirce to symbolic logic are more numerous and varied than those of any other writer—at least in the nineteenth century. Relational logic gained applications. In mathematics, it influenced the abstract analysis of E. Moore and the lattice theory of Garrett Birkhoff. In computer science, the relational model for databases was developed with Peircean ideas in work of Edgar F. Codd , who was a doctoral student  of Arthur W. Burks , a Peirce scholar. In economics, relational logic was used by Frank P.
They also adopted and modified Peirce's notations, typographical variants of those now used. Peirce apparently was ignorant of Frege's work, despite their overlapping achievements in logic, philosophy of language , and the foundations of mathematics. A philosophy of logic, grounded in his categories and semiotic, can be extracted from Peirce's writings and, along with Peirce's logical work more generally, is exposited and defended in Hilary Putnam ;  the Introduction in Nathan Houser et al. Continuity and synechism are central in Peirce's philosophy: "I did not at first suppose that it was, as I gradually came to find it, the master-Key of philosophy".
From a mathematical point of view, he embraced infinitesimals and worked long on the mathematics of continua. He long held that the real numbers constitute a pseudo-continuum;  that a true continuum is the real subject matter of analysis situs topology ; and that a true continuum of instants exceeds—and within any lapse of time has room for—any Aleph number any infinite multitude as he called it of instants. In Peirce wrote that he found that a true continuum might have or lack such room. From now on, there are different kinds of continua, which have different properties.
Peirce held that science achieves statistical probabilities, not certainties, and that spontaneity absolute chance is real see Tychism on his view. Most of his statistical writings promote the frequency interpretation of probability objective ratios of cases , and many of his writings express skepticism about and criticize the use of probability when such models are not based on objective randomization.
Peirce was one of the founders of statistics. With a repeated measures design , Charles Sanders Peirce and Joseph Jastrow introduced blinded , controlled randomized experiments in  Hacking  before Ronald A. He used correlation and smoothing. Peirce extended the work on outliers by Benjamin Peirce , his father.
See Stephen Stigler 's historical books and Ian Hacking . It is not sufficiently recognized that Peirce's career was that of a scientist, not a philosopher; and that during his lifetime he was known and valued chiefly as a scientist, only secondarily as a logician, and scarcely at all as a philosopher. Even his work in philosophy and logic will not be understood until this fact becomes a standing premise of Peircean studies.
Peirce was a working scientist for 30 years, and arguably was a professional philosopher only during the five years he lectured at Johns Hopkins. He learned philosophy mainly by reading, each day, a few pages of Immanuel Kant 's Critique of Pure Reason , in the original German, while a Harvard undergraduate. His writings bear on a wide array of disciplines, including mathematics , logic , philosophy, statistics, astronomy ,  metrology ,  geodesy , experimental psychology ,  economics,  linguistics ,  and the history and philosophy of science.
This work has enjoyed renewed interest and approval, a revival inspired not only by his anticipations of recent scientific developments but also by his demonstration of how philosophy can be applied effectively to human problems. Peirce's philosophy includes see below in related sections a pervasive three-category system, belief that truth is immutable and is both independent from actual opinion fallibilism and discoverable no radical skepticism , logic as formal semiotic on signs, on arguments, and on inquiry's ways—including philosophical pragmatism which he founded , critical common-sensism , and scientific method —and, in metaphysics: Scholastic realism , e.
John Duns Scotus , belief in God, freedom, and at least an attenuated immortality, objective idealism , and belief in the reality of continuity and of absolute chance, mechanical necessity, and creative love. In his work, fallibilism and pragmatism may seem to work somewhat like skepticism and positivism , respectively, in others' work. However, for Peirce, fallibilism is balanced by an anti-skepticism and is a basis for belief in the reality of absolute chance and of continuity,  and pragmatism commits one to anti- nominalist belief in the reality of the general CP 5.
For Peirce, First Philosophy, which he also called cenoscopy, is less basic than mathematics and more basic than the special sciences of nature and mind. It studies positive phenomena in general, phenomena available to any person at any waking moment, and does not settle questions by resorting to special experiences.
The paper outlined a theory of predication, involving three universal categories that Peirce developed in response to reading Aristotle , Immanuel Kant , and G. Hegel , categories that Peirce applied throughout his work for the rest of his life. In the categories one will discern, concentrated, the pattern that one finds formed by the three grades of clearness in " How To Make Our Ideas Clear " paper foundational to pragmatism , and in numerous other trichotomies in his work.
The following table is compiled from that and later works. Peirce did not write extensively in aesthetics and ethics,  but came by to hold that aesthetics, ethics, and logic, in that order, comprise the normative sciences. Peirce regarded logic per se as a division of philosophy, as a normative science based on esthetics and ethics, as more basic than metaphysics,  and as "the art of devising methods of research".
He was productive in both philosophical logic and logic's mathematics, which were connected deeply in his work and thought. Peirce argued that logic is formal semiotic , the formal study of signs in the broadest sense, not only signs that are artificial, linguistic, or symbolic, but also signs that are semblances or are indexical such as reactions. Peirce held that "all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is not composed exclusively of signs",  along with their representational and inferential relations.
He argued that, since all thought takes time, all thought is in signs  and sign processes "semiosis" such as the inquiry process. He divided logic into: 1 speculative grammar, or stechiology, on how signs can be meaningful and, in relation to that, what kinds of signs there are, how they combine, and how some embody or incorporate others; 2 logical critic, or logic proper, on the modes of inference; and 3 speculative or universal rhetoric , or methodeutic,  the philosophical theory of inquiry, including pragmatism.
In his "F. Peirce proceeds to a critical theme in research practices and the shaping of theories:. Peirce adds, that method and economy are best in research but no outright sin inheres in trying any theory in the sense that the investigation via its trial adoption can proceed unimpeded and undiscouraged, and that "the one unpardonable offence" is a philosophical barricade against truth's advance, an offense to which "metaphysicians in all ages have shown themselves the most addicted". Peirce in many writings holds that logic precedes metaphysics ontological, religious, and physical.
Peirce goes on to list four common barriers to inquiry: 1 Assertion of absolute certainty; 2 maintaining that something is absolutely unknowable; 3 maintaining that something is absolutely inexplicable because absolutely basic or ultimate; 4 holding that perfect exactitude is possible, especially such as to quite preclude unusual and anomalous phenomena.
To refuse absolute theoretical certainty is the heart of fallibilism , which Peirce unfolds into refusals to set up any of the listed barriers. Peirce elsewhere argues that logic's presupposition of fallibilism leads at length to the view that chance and continuity are very real tychism and synechism. The First Rule of Logic pertains to the mind's presuppositions in undertaking reason and logic; presuppositions, for instance, that truth and the real do not depend on yours or my opinion of them but do depend on representational relation and consist in the destined end in investigation taken far enough see below.
He describes such ideas as, collectively, hopes which, in particular cases, one is unable seriously to doubt. In three articles in —,    Peirce rejected mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt and first or ultimate principles, and argued that we have as he numbered them  :. The above sense of the term "intuition" is almost Kant's, said Peirce. It differs from the current looser sense that encompasses instinctive or anyway half-conscious inference. Peirce argued that those incapacities imply the reality of the general and of the continuous, the validity of the modes of reasoning,  and the falsity of philosophical Cartesianism see below.
Peirce rejected the conception usually ascribed to Kant of the unknowable thing-in-itself  and later said that to "dismiss make-believes" is a prerequisite for pragmatism. Peirce sought, through his wide-ranging studies through the decades, formal philosophical ways to articulate thought's processes, and also to explain the workings of science. These inextricably entangled questions of a dynamics of inquiry rooted in nature and nurture led him to develop his semiotic with very broadened conceptions of signs and inference, and, as its culmination, a theory of inquiry for the task of saying 'how science works' and devising research methods.
This would be logic by the medieval definition taught for centuries: art of arts, science of sciences, having the way to the principles of all methods. Peirce began writing on semiotic in the s, around the time when he devised his system of three categories. He called it both semiotic and semeiotic. Both are current in singular and plural. He based it on the conception of a triadic sign relation , and defined semiosis as "action, or influence, which is, or involves, a cooperation of three subjects, such as a sign, its object, and its interpretant, this tri-relative influence not being in any way resolvable into actions between pairs".
Peirce held that all thought is in signs, issuing in and from interpretation, where sign is the word for the broadest variety of conceivable semblances, diagrams, metaphors, symptoms, signals, designations, symbols, texts, even mental concepts and ideas, all as determinations of a mind or quasi-mind , that which at least functions like a mind, as in the work of crystals or bees  —the focus is on sign action in general rather than on psychology, linguistics, or social studies fields which he also pursued. Inquiry is a kind of inference process, a manner of thinking and semiosis.
Global divisions of ways for phenomena to stand as signs, and the subsumption of inquiry and thinking within inference as a sign process, enable the study of inquiry on semiotics' three levels:. Peirce uses examples often from common experience, but defines and discusses such things as assertion and interpretation in terms of philosophical logic. In a formal vein, Peirce said:.
On the Definition of Logic. Logic is formal semiotic. A sign is something, A , which brings something, B , its interpretant sign, determined or created by it, into the same sort of correspondence or a lower implied sort with something, C , its object , as that in which itself stands to C. This definition no more involves any reference to human thought than does the definition of a line as the place within which a particle lies during a lapse of time. It is from this definition that I deduce the principles of logic by mathematical reasoning, and by mathematical reasoning that, I aver, will support criticism of Weierstrassian severity, and that is perfectly evident.
The word "formal" in the definition is also defined. Peirce's theory of signs is known to be one of the most complex semiotic theories due to its generalistic claim. Anything is a sign—not absolutely as itself, but instead in some relation or other. The sign relation is the key. It defines three roles encompassing 1 the sign, 2 the sign's subject matter, called its object , and 3 the sign's meaning or ramification as formed into a kind of effect called its interpretant a further sign, for example a translation.
It is an irreducible triadic relation , according to Peirce. The roles are distinct even when the things that fill those roles are not. The roles are but three; a sign of an object leads to one or more interpretants, and, as signs, they lead to further interpretants. Two traditional approaches to sign relation, necessary though insufficient, are the way of extension a sign's objects, also called breadth, denotation, or application and the way of intension the objects' characteristics, qualities, attributes referenced by the sign, also called depth, comprehension , significance, or connotation.
Peirce adds a third, the way of information , including change of information, to integrate the other two approaches into a unified whole. A sign depends on its object in such a way as to represent its object—the object enables and, in a sense, determines the sign. A physically causal sense of this stands out when a sign consists in an indicative reaction.
The interpretant depends likewise on both the sign and the object—an object determines a sign to determine an interpretant. But this determination is not a succession of dyadic events, like a row of toppling dominoes; sign determination is triadic. For example, an interpretant does not merely represent something which represented an object; instead an interpretant represents something as a sign representing the object.
The object be it a quality or fact or law or even fictional determines the sign to an interpretant through one's collateral experience  with the object, in which the object is found or from which it is recalled, as when a sign consists in a chance semblance of an absent object. Peirce used the word "determine" not in a strictly deterministic sense, but in a sense of "specializes", bestimmt ,  involving variable amount, like an influence.
The process is logically structured to perpetuate itself, and is definitive of sign, object, and interpretant in general. Some of the understanding needed by the mind depends on familiarity with the object. To know what a given sign denotes, the mind needs some experience of that sign's object, experience outside of, and collateral to, that sign or sign system.
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In that context Peirce speaks of collateral experience, collateral observation, collateral acquaintance, all in much the same terms. Among Peirce's many sign typologies, three stand out, interlocked. The first typology depends on the sign itself, the second on how the sign stands for its denoted object, and the third on how the sign stands for its object to its interpretant.
Also, each of the three typologies is a three-way division, a trichotomy , via Peirce's three phenomenological categories : 1 quality of feeling, 2 reaction, resistance, and 3 representation, mediation. Qualisign, sinsign, legisign also called tone, token, type, and also called potisign, actisign, famisign :  This typology classifies every sign according to the sign's own phenomenological category—the qualisign is a quality, a possibility, a "First"; the sinsign is a reaction or resistance, a singular object, an actual event or fact, a "Second"; and the legisign is a habit, a rule, a representational relation, a "Third".
Icon, index, symbol : This typology, the best known one, classifies every sign according to the category of the sign's way of denoting its object—the icon also called semblance or likeness by a quality of its own, the index by factual connection to its object, and the symbol by a habit or rule for its interpretant. Rheme, dicisign, argument also called sumisign, dicisign, suadisign, also seme, pheme, delome,  and regarded as very broadened versions of the traditional term, proposition, argument : This typology classifies every sign according to the category which the interpretant attributes to the sign's way of denoting its object—the rheme, for example a term, is a sign interpreted to represent its object in respect of quality; the dicisign, for example a proposition, is a sign interpreted to represent its object in respect of fact; and the argument is a sign interpreted to represent its object in respect of habit or law.
This is the culminating typology of the three, where the sign is understood as a structural element of inference. Thus each of the three typologies is a three-valued parameter for every sign. The three parameters are not independent of each other; many co-classifications are absent, for reasons pertaining to the lack of either habit-taking or singular reaction in a quality, and the lack of habit-taking in a singular reaction. The result is not 27 but instead ten classes of signs fully specified at this level of analysis. Borrowing a brace of concepts from Aristotle , Peirce examined three basic modes of inference — abduction , deduction , and induction —in his "critique of arguments" or "logic proper".
Peirce also called abduction "retroduction", "presumption", and, earliest of all, "hypothesis". He characterized it as guessing and as inference to an explanatory hypothesis. He sometimes expounded the modes of inference by transformations of the categorical syllogism Barbara AAA , for example in "Deduction, Induction, and Hypothesis" Rule: All the beans from this bag are white. Case: These beans are beans from this bag. Case: These beans are [randomly selected] from this bag. Result: These beans are white. Result: These beans [oddly] are white. Peirce in "A Theory of Probable Inference" Studies in Logic equated hypothetical inference with the induction of characters of objects as he had done in effect before .
Eventually dissatisfied, by he distinguished them once and for all and also wrote that he now took the syllogistic forms and the doctrine of logical extension and comprehension as being less basic than he had thought. In he presented the following logical form for abductive inference: . The logical form does not also cover induction, since induction neither depends on surprise nor proposes a new idea for its conclusion.
Induction seeks facts to test a hypothesis; abduction seeks a hypothesis to account for facts. Peirce's recipe for pragmatic thinking, which he called pragmatism and, later, pragmaticism , is recapitulated in several versions of the so-called pragmatic maxim. Here is one of his more emphatic reiterations of it:. Consider what effects that might conceivably have practical bearings you conceive the objects of your conception to have.
Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object. As a movement, pragmatism began in the early s in discussions among Peirce, William James , and others in the Metaphysical Club. James among others regarded some articles by Peirce such as " The Fixation of Belief " and especially " How to Make Our Ideas Clear " as foundational to pragmatism. Peirce differed from James and the early John Dewey , in some of their tangential enthusiasms, in being decidedly more rationalistic and realistic, in several senses of those terms, throughout the preponderance of his own philosophical moods.
In Peirce coined the new name pragmaticism "for the precise purpose of expressing the original definition", saying that "all went happily" with James's and F. Schiller 's variant uses of the old name "pragmatism" and that he coined the new name because of the old name's growing use in "literary journals, where it gets abused".
Charles Sanders Peirce
Yet he cited as causes, in a manuscript, his differences with James and Schiller and, in a publication, his differences with James as well as literary author Giovanni Papini 's declaration of pragmatism's indefinability. Peirce in any case regarded his views that truth is immutable and infinity is real, as being opposed by the other pragmatists, but he remained allied with them on other issues. Pragmatism begins with the idea that belief is that on which one is prepared to act. Peirce's pragmatism is a method of clarification of conceptions of objects.
It equates any conception of an object to a conception of that object's effects to a general extent of the effects' conceivable implications for informed practice. It is a method of sorting out conceptual confusions occasioned, for example, by distinctions that make sometimes needed formal yet not practical differences. He formulated both pragmatism and statistical principles as aspects of scientific logic, in his "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" series of articles.
By way of example of how to clarify conceptions, he addressed conceptions about truth and the real as questions of the presuppositions of reasoning in general. In clearness's second grade the "nominal" grade , he defined truth as a sign's correspondence to its object, and the real as the object of such correspondence, such that truth and the real are independent of that which you or I or any actual, definite community of inquirers think. After that needful but confined step, next in clearness's third grade the pragmatic, practice-oriented grade he defined truth as that opinion which would be reached, sooner or later but still inevitably, by research taken far enough, such that the real does depend on that ideal final opinion—a dependence to which he appeals in theoretical arguments elsewhere, for instance for the long-run validity of the rule of induction.
Peirce said that a conception's meaning consists in " all general modes of rational conduct " implied by "acceptance" of the conception—that is, if one were to accept, first of all, the conception as true, then what could one conceive to be consequent general modes of rational conduct by all who accept the conception as true? His pragmatism does not equate a conception's meaning, its intellectual purport, with the conceived benefit or cost of the conception itself, like a meme or, say, propaganda , outside the perspective of its being true, nor, since a conception is general, is its meaning equated with any definite set of actual consequences or upshots corroborating or undermining the conception or its worth.
His pragmatism also bears no resemblance to "vulgar" pragmatism, which misleadingly connotes a ruthless and Machiavellian search for mercenary or political advantage. Instead the pragmatic maxim is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection  arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances—a method hospitable to the formation of explanatory hypotheses, and conducive to the use and improvement of verification.
Peirce's pragmatism, as method and theory of definitions and conceptual clearness, is part of his theory of inquiry,  which he variously called speculative, general, formal or universal rhetoric or simply methodeutic. Critical common-sensism,  treated by Peirce as a consequence of his pragmatism, is his combination of Thomas Reid's common-sense philosophy with a fallibilism that recognizes that propositions of our more or less vague common sense now indubitable may later come into question, for example because of transformations of our world through science.
It includes efforts to work up in tests genuine doubts for a core group of common indubitables that vary slowly if at all. In " The Fixation of Belief " , Peirce described inquiry in general not as the pursuit of truth per se but as the struggle to move from irritating, inhibitory doubt born of surprise, disagreement, and the like, and to reach a secure belief, belief being that on which one is prepared to act. That let Peirce frame scientific inquiry as part of a broader spectrum and as spurred, like inquiry generally, by actual doubt, not mere verbal, quarrelsome, or hyperbolic doubt , which he held to be fruitless.
Peirce sketched four methods of settling opinion, ordered from least to most successful:. Peirce held that, in practical affairs, slow and stumbling ratiocination is often dangerously inferior to instinct and traditional sentiment, and that the scientific method is best suited to theoretical research,  which in turn should not be trammeled by the other methods and practical ends; reason's "first rule"  is that, in order to learn, one must desire to learn and, as a corollary, must not block the way of inquiry.
Scientific method excels over the others finally by being deliberately designed to arrive—eventually—at the most secure beliefs, upon which the most successful practices can be based. Starting from the idea that people seek not truth per se but instead to subdue irritating, inhibitory doubt, Peirce showed how, through the struggle, some can come to submit to truth for the sake of belief's integrity, seek as truth the guidance of potential conduct correctly to its given goal, and wed themselves to the scientific method. Insofar as clarification by pragmatic reflection suits explanatory hypotheses and fosters predictions and testing, pragmatism points beyond the usual duo of foundational alternatives: deduction from self-evident truths, or rationalism ; and induction from experiential phenomena, or empiricism.
Based on his critique of three modes of argument and different from either foundationalism or coherentism , Peirce's approach seeks to justify claims by a three-phase dynamic of inquiry:. Thereby, Peirce devised an approach to inquiry far more solid than the flatter image of inductive generalization simpliciter , which is a mere re-labeling of phenomenological patterns.
Peirce's pragmatism was the first time the scientific method was proposed as an epistemology for philosophical questions. A theory that succeeds better than its rivals in predicting and controlling our world is said to be nearer the truth. This is an operational notion of truth used by scientists. Peirce extracted the pragmatic model or theory of inquiry from its raw materials in classical logic and refined it in parallel with the early development of symbolic logic to address problems about the nature of scientific reasoning.
Abduction, deduction, and induction make incomplete sense in isolation from one another but comprise a cycle understandable as a whole insofar as they collaborate toward the common end of inquiry. In the pragmatic way of thinking about conceivable practical implications, every thing has a purpose, and, as possible, its purpose should first be denoted. Abduction hypothesizes an explanation for deduction to clarify into implications to be tested so that induction can evaluate the hypothesis, in the struggle to move from troublesome uncertainty to more secure belief.
No matter how traditional and needful it is to study the modes of inference in abstraction from one another, the integrity of inquiry strongly limits the effective modularity of its principal components. There he also reviewed plausibility and inductive precision issues of critique of arguments. Abductive or retroductive phase. Guessing, inference to explanatory hypotheses for selection of those best worth trying.
agvibasgui.ga From abduction, Peirce distinguishes induction as inferring, on the basis of tests, the proportion of truth in the hypothesis. Every inquiry, whether into ideas, brute facts, or norms and laws, arises from surprising observations in one or more of those realms and for example at any stage of an inquiry already underway.
All explanatory content of theories comes from abduction, which guesses a new or outside idea so as to account in a simple, economical way for a surprising or complicated phenomenon. The modicum of success in our guesses far exceeds that of random luck, and seems born of attunement to nature by developed or inherent instincts, especially insofar as best guesses are optimally plausible and simple in the sense of the "facile and natural", as by Galileo 's natural light of reason and as distinct from "logical simplicity".
Its general rationale is inductive: it succeeds often enough and it has no substitute in expediting us toward new truths. A simple but unlikely guess, if not costly to test for falsity, may belong first in line for testing. A guess is intrinsically worth testing if it has plausibility or reasoned objective probability, while subjective likelihood , though reasoned, can be misleadingly seductive. Guesses can be selected for trial strategically, for their caution for which Peirce gave as example the game of Twenty Questions , breadth, or incomplexity.
Inductive phase. Evaluation of the hypothesis, inferring from observational or experimental tests of its deduced consequences. The long-run validity of the rule of induction is deducible from the principle presuppositional to reasoning in general that the real "is only the object of the final opinion to which sufficient investigation would lead";  in other words, anything excluding such a process would never be real. Induction involving the ongoing accumulation of evidence follows "a method which, sufficiently persisted in", will "diminish the error below any predesignate degree". Three stages:.
Peirce drew on the methodological implications of the four incapacities —no genuine introspection, no intuition in the sense of non-inferential cognition, no thought but in signs, and no conception of the absolutely incognizable—to attack philosophical Cartesianism , of which he said that: . No lone individual can reasonably hope to fulfill philosophy's multi-generational dream.
When "candid and disciplined minds" continue to disagree on a theoretical issue, even the theory's author should feel doubts about it. It trusts to "a single thread of inference depending often upon inconspicuous premisses" — when, instead, philosophy should, "like the successful sciences", proceed only from tangible, scrutinizable premisses and trust not to any one argument but instead to "the multitude and variety of its arguments" as forming, not a chain at least as weak as its weakest link, but "a cable whose fibers", soever "slender, are sufficiently numerous and intimately connected".
It renders many facts "absolutely inexplicable, unless to say that 'God makes them so' is to be regarded as an explanation"  — when, instead, philosophy should avoid being "unidealistic",  misbelieving that something real can defy or evade all possible ideas, and supposing, inevitably, "some absolutely inexplicable, unanalyzable ultimate", which explanatory surmise explains nothing and so is inadmissible.
Peirce divided metaphysics into 1 ontology or general metaphysics, 2 psychical or religious metaphysics, and 3 physical metaphysics. Peirce was a Scholastic Realist , declaring for the reality of generals as early as In his "The Logic of Relatives" he wrote:. I formerly defined the possible as that which in a given state of information real or feigned we do not know not to be true.
But this definition today seems to me only a twisted phrase which, by means of two negatives, conceals an anacoluthon. We know in advance of experience that certain things are not true, because we see they are impossible. Peirce retained, as useful for some purposes, the definitions in terms of information states, but insisted that the pragmaticist is committed to a strong modal realism by conceiving of objects in terms of predictive general conditional propositions about how they would behave under certain circumstances. Psychical or religious metaphysics. Peirce believed in God, and characterized such belief as founded in an instinct explorable in musing over the worlds of ideas, brute facts, and evolving habits—and it is a belief in God not as an actual or existent being in Peirce's sense of those words , but all the same as a real being.
Peirce also argued that the will is free  and see Synechism that there is at least an attenuated kind of immortality. Physical metaphysics. Peirce held the view, which he called objective idealism , that "matter is effete mind, inveterate habits becoming physical laws". He held that fortuitous variation which he also called "sporting" , mechanical necessity, and creative love are the three modes of evolution modes called "tychasm", "anancasm", and "agapasm"  of the cosmos and its parts.
He found his conception of agapasm embodied in Lamarckian evolution ; the overall idea in any case is that of evolution tending toward an end or goal, and it could also be the evolution of a mind or a society; it is the kind of evolution which manifests workings of mind in some general sense. He said that overall he was a synechist, holding with reality of continuity,  especially of space, time, and law. Peirce outlined two fields, "Cenoscopy" and "Science of Review", both of which he called philosophy. Both included philosophy about science. In he arranged them, from more to less theoretically basic, thus: .
Peirce placed, within Science of Review, the work and theory of classifying the sciences including mathematics and philosophy. His classifications, on which he worked for many years, draw on argument and wide knowledge, and are of interest both as a map for navigating his philosophy and as an accomplished polymath's survey of research in his time. Now logical terms are of three grand classes. They regard an object as it is in itself as such quale ; for example, as horse, tree, or man. These are absolute terms.